NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Math Chapter – 1 Exercise – 1.6

NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Math Chapter – 1 Exercise – 1.6

1. If X and Y are two sets such that n(X) = 17, n(Y) = 23 and n(X ∪ Y) = 38, find n(X ∩ Y).

Solution:

Given

n (X) = 17

n (Y) = 23

n (X U Y) = 38

We can write it as

n (X U Y) = n (X) + n (Y) – n (X ∩ Y)

Substituting the values

38 = 17 + 23 – n (X ∩ Y)

By further calculation

n (X ∩ Y) = 40 – 38 = 2

So we get

n (X ∩ Y) = 2

2. If X and Y are two sets such that X ∪Y has 18 elements, X has 8 elements and Y has 15 elements; how many elements does X ∩ Y have?

Solution:

Given

n

(X U Y) = 18

n (X) = 8

n (Y) = 15

We can write it as

n (X U Y) = n (X) + n (Y) – n (X ∩ Y)

Substituting the values

18 = 8 + 15 – n (X ∩ Y)

By further calculation

n (X ∩ Y) = 23 – 18 = 5

So we get

n (X ∩ Y) = 5

3. In a group of 400 people, 250 can speak Hindi and 200 can speak English. How many people can speak both Hindi and English?

Solution:

Consider H as the set of people who speak Hindi

E as the set of people who speak English

We know that

n(H ∪ E) = 400

n(H) = 250

n(E) = 200

It can be written as

n(H ∪ E) = n(H) + n(E) – n(H ∩ E)

By substituting the values

400 = 250 + 200 – n(H ∩ E)

By further calculation

400 = 450 – n(H ∩ E)

So we get

n(H ∩ E) = 450 – 400

n(H ∩ E) = 50

Therefore, 50 people can speak both Hindi and English.

4. If S and T are two sets such that S has 21 elements, T has 32 elements, and S ∩ T has 11 elements, how many elements does S ∪ T have?

Solution:

We know that

n(S) = 21

n(T) = 32

n(S ∩ T) = 11

It can be written as

n (S ∪ T) = n (S) + n (T) – n (S ∩ T)

Substituting the values

n (S ∪ T) = 21 + 32 – 11

So we get

n (S ∪ T)= 42

Therefore, the set (S ∪ T) has 42 elements.

5. If X and Y are two sets such that X has 40 elements, X ∪Y has 60 elements and X ∩Y has 10 elements, how many elements does Y have?

Solution:

We know that

n(X) = 40

n(X ∪ Y) = 60

n(X ∩ Y) = 10

It can be written as

n(X ∪ Y) = n(X) + n(Y) – n(X ∩ Y)

By substituting the values

60 = 40 + n(Y) – 10

On further calculation

n(Y) = 60 – (40 – 10) = 30

Therefore, the set Y has 30 elements.

6. In a group of 70 people, 37 like coffee, 52 like tea, and each person likes at least one of the two drinks. How many people like both coffee and tea?

Solution:

Consider C as the set of people who like coffee

T as the set of people who like tea

n(C ∪ T) = 70

n(C) = 37

n(T) = 52

It is given that

n(C ∪ T) = n(C) + n(T) – n(C ∩ T)

Substituting the values

70 = 37 + 52 – n(C ∩ T)

By further calculation

70 = 89 – n(C ∩ T)

So we get

n(C ∩ T) = 89 – 70 = 19

Therefore, 19 people like both coffee and tea.

7. In a group of 65 people, 40 like cricket, 10 like both cricket and tennis. How many like tennis only and not cricket? How many like tennis?

Solution:

Consider C as the set of people who like cricket

T as the set of people who like tennis

n(C ∪ T) = 65

n(C) = 40

n(C ∩ T) = 10

It can be written as

n(C ∪ T) = n(C) + n(T) – n(C ∩ T)

Substituting the values

65 = 40 + n(T) – 10

By further calculation

65 = 30 + n(T)

So we get

n(T) = 65 – 30 = 35

Hence, 35 people like tennis.

We know that,

(T – C) ∪ (T ∩ C) = T

So we get,

(T – C) ∩ (T ∩ C) = Φ

Here

n (T) = n (T – C) + n (T ∩ C)

Substituting the values

35 = n (T – C) + 10

By further calculation

n (T – C) = 35 – 10 = 25

Therefore, 25 people like only tennis.

8. In a committee, 50 people speak French, 20 speak Spanish and 10 speak both Spanish and French. How many speak at least one of these two languages?

Solution:

Consider F as the set of people in the committee who speak French

S as the set of people in the committee who speak Spanish

n(F) = 50

n(S) = 20

n(S ∩ F) = 10

It can be written as

n(S ∪ F) = n(S) + n(F) – n(S ∩ F)

By substituting the values

n(S ∪ F) = 20 + 50 – 10

By further calculation

n(S ∪ F) = 70 – 10

n(S ∪ F) = 60

Therefore, 60 people in the committee speak at least one of the two languages.