# CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2021-22

कक्षा 12 भौतिकी (सीबीएसई शैक्षणिक सत्र 2021-22) के लिए सीबीएसई पाठ्यक्रम 2021-22 पीडीएफ प्रारूप में डाउनलोड के लिए यहां उपलब्ध है। सीबीएसई बोर्ड परीक्षा की तैयारी के लिए कक्षा 12 भौतिकी के लिए यह सीबीएसई पाठ्यक्रम महत्वपूर्ण है।

#### Unit I: Electrostatics

Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

dir="ltr">Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric  flux,  statement of Gauss’s theorem and its  applications to find fields due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of  charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy  of  a  system of  two  point  charges  and  of  electric  dipole  in  an electrostatic field.

Conductors  and  insulators,   free  charges  and  bound    charges  inside   a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination  of capacitors  in  series  and in  parallel,  capacitance  of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

#### Unit II: Current Electricity

Chapter–3: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility   and  their   relation   with   electric   current;  Ohm’s   law,   electrical resistance, V-I characteristics  (linear and nonlinear),  electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of  cells  in  series  and in  parallel,  Kirchhoff’s  laws  and simple  applications, wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.

Potentiometer  – principle  and its  applications  to measure potential  difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

#### Unit III:    Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.

Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on  a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron.

Force  on  a current-carrying  conductor  in  a uniform  magnetic  field,  force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced   by   a  current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole  moment  of  a revolving  electron,  magnetic  field  intensity  due  to  a magnetic  dipole  (bar magnet) along  its  axis  and perpendicular  to  its  axis, torque on  a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.

#### Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

Chapter–7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

#### Unit V: Electromagnetic waves

Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).

Electromagnetic    spectrum   (radio    waves,   microwaves,    infrared,    visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

#### Unit VI: Optics

Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical  surfaces,  lenses,  thin  lens  formula,  lensmaker’s  formula, magnification,  power  of  a  lens,  combination  of  thin  lenses  in  contact, refraction of light through a prism.

Scattering of light – blue colour of sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.

Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter–10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens principle, reflection and refraction of plane waves at a plane  surface  using  wave fronts.  Proof  of laws  of reflection and  refraction  using  Huygens  principle.  Interference,  Young’s  double  slit experiment and expression for fringe width,   coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, resolving   power  of  microscope   and  astronomical   telescope,   polarisation, plane   polarised   light,   Brewster’s  law,   uses  of  plane   polarised   light   and Polaroids.

#### Unit VII:  Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Experimental study of photoelectric effect

Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation, Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

#### Unit VIII:  Atoms and Nuclei

Chapter–12: Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Chapter–13: Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays  and their  properties;  radioactive  decay law,  half  life  and mean life.

Mass-energy  relation,   mass  defect;   binding   energy  per  nucleon  and  its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

#### Unit IX:   Electronic Devices

Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)

Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;

Special  purpose p-n  junction  diodes:  LED,  photodiode,  solar  cell  and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.